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Agricultural systems in South East Asia are at a crossroad between conventional intensive models and emerging agroecological approaches. The continuous intensification of conventional models which rely heavily on chemical inputs and capital is leading to a simplification of agricultural landscapes, land degradation and biodiversity depletion, and to increased health risks for farmers and consumers. Moreover, beyond food and nutrition security, food safety is a rising concern, especially in relation to high pesticide residues, and to the contamination of soils and aquifers. Interestingly, agroecological approaches provide an increasing range of agricultural and market innovations towards healthier, environmental and sustainable practices.