Regenerative agriculture is gaining momentum as a solution for providing positive environmental outcomes, while meeting the growing demand for food and fibre. However, there are competing approaches for how to balance the need for and impact of agriculture. One approach, ‘sustainable intensification’, prioritises technology and other inputs to enhance yield while reducing environmental impacts. By emphasising intensification, this approach aims to reduce the ‘extensification’ of agriculture, thus sparing land for restoration and conservation. An alternative approach prioritises building on and strengthening natural processes within agricultural systems, and enhancing environmental outcomes through sharing land between agricultural and environmental needs. Regenerative agriculture is generally positioned within this latter approach. There are overlaps between these approaches and debate about whether they are mutually exclusive. However, an important distinguishing characteristic of regenerative agriculture is that it applies nature-based solutions to meeting humanity’s needs for food and fibre, by drawing on and strengthening ecological processes.