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LEGS is underpinned by a livelihoods approach and is based on three livelihoods objectives:

  • Providing immediate benefits to crisis-affected communities
  • Protecting the livestock-related assets of crisis-affected communities
  • Assisting the re-building of key assets among crisis-affected communities

LEGS has a global scope and focuses on the process of identifying needs and analysing which interventions are most appropriate to support the livelihoods of the affected populations, at which times, and in which emergencies. LEGS recognizes that climate change is resulting in more complex and unpredictable types of disaster.

Hence guidance on options (‘decision-making trees’) forms the basis of the main sections, with references to where detailed technical guidelines and other materials may be obtained. The key technical areas covered within the three livelihoods objectives are: destocking, veterinary care; supplementary feeding; provision of water; livestock shelter and settlement; and provision of livestock or restocking

12 Issues in this Publication (Showing 1 - 10)

LEGS Participatory Techniques Toolkit - 20-05-2021

LEGS Participation Mini Module

Suji Omeno

In this Mini Module, LEGS provides key techniques to aid and facilitate community participation. Some of the techniques include Focus Group Discussions, Key Informant Interviews,Proportional Piling, Simple Ranking, Pairwise Ranking, Matrix Scoring, Historical Timelines, Seasonal Impact Calendars, Participatory Mapping, Venn Diagramming, and Radar Diagramming.

The Quality of Veterinary Pharmaceuticals - 20-10-2020

A Discussion Paper for the Livestock Emergency Guidelines and Standards (LEGS)

Holly Hufnagel

The objective of this discussion paper is to inform the LEGS Technical Advisory Committee on issues relating to the quality of veterinary pharmaceuticals for livestock responses in emergency situations. This includes the elements of the supply chain as well as the pharmaceuticals themselves, and also growing concerns about how antibiotic and anthelminthic pharmaceuticals are used (and misused) in the context of the global problem of anti-microbial resistance (AMR). This Discussion Paper draws heavily on the experiences and conclusions of the LEGS Operational Research Project on “Operational barriers to applying LEGS”, a review of existing literature, and interviews with key informants from agencies working within this sector (Vétérinaires Sans Frontières - VSF, Food and Agriculture Organisation - FAO, The Brooke, University/Research Institutions, LEGS trainers). The paper is structured in two sections, the first focusing on ensuring the quality of veterinary pharmaceuticals and their supply chain in an emergency, and the second on the development of anti-microbial resistance and strategies for minimizing these risks. The Annex provides case studies from Zimbabwe, Somalia and Kenya, and Niger.

Gender and Livestock in Emergencies - 20-10-2020

A Discussion Paper for the Livestock Emergency Guidelines and Standards (LEGS)

Karin de Jonge and Lucy Maarse

The aim of this Discussion Paper is to outline the major issues at the crossroads of gender and livestock in the context of humanitarian response, for the Advisory Committee of LEGS (Livestock Emergency Guidelines and Standards) to inform the revision of the LEGS Handbook. This Paper includes: 

  • a summary of current trends and thinking regarding gender and humanitarian action, and its (potential) relevance for livestock related humanitarian interventions
  • case studies with a gender perspective

Livestock and Nutrition - 20-09-2020

A Discussion Paper for the Livestock Emergency Guidelines and Standards (LEGS)

Kate Sadler

This discussion paper was commissioned by LEGS to review the key issues relating to nutrition in the context of livestock-based emergency interventions, with particular attention to the following key topics:

  • The contribution of livestock to nutrition at household level
  • The impact of emergencies on this contribution
  • The nutritional benefits of appropriate livestock based emergency interventions

Livestock Insurance - 20-09-2020

A Discussion Paper for the Livestock Emergency Guidelines and Standards (LEGS)

Yacob Aklilu

This paper was commissioned to assess livestock insurance schemes and explore what evidence exists regarding the effective implementation of livestock insurance schemes to support the livelihoods of communities affected by crisis. The paper analyses the impact of these schemes on livelihoods, based on the LEGS livelihoods objectives, and makes recommendations on the relevance of livestock insurance to LEGS and the next edition of the LEGS Handbook. The paper discusses two livestock insurance systems – ‘traditional’ systems and emerging livestock insurance schemes. Supporting case studies from Kenya, Bangladesh, Sudan and Mongolia are also provided. The paper is the result of a cross-section of documents consulted from a number of countries and information obtained from key persons in Ethiopia. Simple definitions of technical terms are provided in the footnotes.

The Challenges of Emergency Veterinary Voucher Schemes: Research into Operational Barriers to Applying LEGS - 20-01-2020

The research methodology was based on the following multi-method research approach, using both quantitative and qualitative data collection methods, with checklists and tools developed for each:

  1.  Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice baseline and endline studies through 46 Focus Group Discussions with community members (220 women and 210 men in total)
  2.  Key Informant Interviews on animal health service delivery with CAHWs (33), AHSPs (8), Private Veterinary Pharmacies (PVPs) (19), government staff (8), and Test partner project staff (16)
  3. Observational site visits and spot checks to review veterinary pharmaceutical quality with PVPs (9) and CAHWs/AHSPs (33)
  4. Laboratory tests to check the stability of the active ingredients and the sterility of the veterinary pharmaceuticals in use (78 samples tested)
  5.  A global online stakeholder survey administered via the LEGS website and mailing list to consult practitioners and policy makers around the world about their experiences of providing veterinary support in emergencies (85 responses) 
  6. USAID/OFDA also carried out fi eld visits to the three Test sites during the research period

LEGS Core Standards and Community-Based Animal Health Services - 20-01-2020

LEGS Briefing Paper

This Briefing Paper considers how community-based animal health (CBAH) services that assist livestock owning communities can be better supported by implementing agencies, and draws on the lessons learnt from a LEGS Operational Research project funded by USAID/OFDA. The research aimed to identify and test alternative programme models for the application of LEGS Standards whilst complying with key donor regulations — specifi cally in the area of animal health and veterinary drug procurement and use — implemented using emergency veterinary voucher schemes. The research project also undertook an online global survey of practitioners and policy makers to learn about their experiences of providing veterinary support in emergencies.

LEGS Drought Tool - 20-03-2018

A LEGS-based preparedness, planning and response tool for improved resilience in the drylands of the Horn of Africa

The Drought Tool is structured as follows: the background section provides an overview of recent droughts in the HoA, looks at the costs of drought, and introduces the LEGS Core Standards and the Drought Cycle Management (DCM) model. The core section, based on guidance from the Drought Workshop, presents evidence-based good practice for livestock interventions during droughts in line with the different stages of the DCM model. The final section then identifies some of the policy issues that need to be addressed to help improve the outcomes of drought emergency livestock interventions in the HoA region. Annex 1 contains ‘The Drought Tool in Brief’, a summary of the key recommendations for each stage of the DCM model.

Revisiting the Economic Impacts of Early Drought Response - 20-03-2018

How does early response affect households in pastoralist areas?

LEGS Briefing Paper

This Briefing Paper takes a different perspective on assessing the value of early response, and focuses on the impacts of livestock projects on poorer households in pastoralist areas. These households often have relatively few animals, and during normal (non-drought) years can struggle to increase their herds due to the need to sell some animals to meet basic domestic needs such as food, healthcare, livestock services and school fees, and because of animal losses due to disease or other causes. Furthermore, household economic growth to a distinctly better financial position, with more animals, is not linear but occurs as notable “step ups” from one level of wealth to another4 . For these reasons, poor households are often caught in a poverty trap, in which small increases in financial assets are transient, and never enough to reach a higher level of financial security. The impacts of drought are particularly important for these households, because drought can cause high livestock mortality and this makes it even more difficult for households to secure and build livestock assets. Therefore, the paper considers how early response affects the livestock of poorer households in pastoralist areas during drought, and then after drought, how the impacts of early response relate to herd growth and recovery.

Supporting Livelihoods and Livestock During Drought in Pastoralist Areas - 20-03-2018

The livelihoods and nutritional impacts of LEGS interventions

LEGS Briefing Paper

This Briefing Paper summarizes the livelihoods and nutritional impacts of LEGS interventions during drought, and then examines these impacts in relation to recent trends in aid funding to livestock-related support in the Horn of Africa. Information on the impacts of LEGS interventions was obtained mainly from reports in the online LEGS Impact Database.


East Africa