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By: ECHO Staff
Published: 1988-01-01

Utilization of Plant Parts

Cooking the Leaves

I quote Alicia Ray, who wrote a booklet on the benzolive in Haiti some time ago:

Of all parts of the tree, it is the leaves that are most extensively used. The growing tips and young leaves are best. [However, we sometimes pull the leaflets off in our hands and cook them without regard to age]. Unlike other kinds of edible leaves, benzolive leaves do not become bitter as they grow older, only tougher. When you prepare the leaves, always remove them from the woody stems, which do not soften. [We did not know this the first time we served them. It was almost like having wire in the dish].

The leaves can be used any way you would use spinach. One easy way to cook them is this: Steam 2 cups freshly picked leaves for just a few minutes in one cup water, seasoned with an onion, butter and salt. Vary or add other seasons according to your taste. In India leaves are used in vegetable curries, for seasoning and in pickles. Let your imagination be your guide.

Cooking the pods

Alicia Ray writes,

When young, horseradish tree pods are edible whole, with a delicate flavor like asparagus. They can be used from the time they emerge from the flower cluster until they become too woody to snap easily. The largest ones usable in this way will probably be 12 to 15 inches long and 1/4 inch in diameter. At this state they can be prepared in many ways. Here are three:

1. Cut the pods into one-inch lengths. Add onion, butter and salt. Boil for ten minutes or until tender.

2. Steam the pods without seasonings, then marinade in a mixture of oil, vinegar, salt, pepper, garlic and parsley.

3. An acceptable "mock asparagus" soup can be made by boiling until tender, the cut pods seasoned with onion. Add milk, thicken and season to taste.

Even if the pods pass the stage where they snap easily they can still be used. You can cut them into three-inch lengths, boil until tender (about 15 minutes), and eat as you would artichokes. Or you can scrape the pods to remove the woody outer fibers before cooking.

Even if the pods pass the stage where they snap easily they can still be used. You can cut them into three-inch lengths, boil until tender (about 15 minutes), and eat as you would artichokes. Or you can scrape the pods to remove the woody outer fibers before cooking.

Cooking the peas

Alicia Ray writes that the seeds, or "peas," can "be used from the time they begin to form until they begin to turn yellow and their shells begin to harden. Only experience can tell you at what stage to harvest the pods for their peas.

To open the pod, take it in both hands and twist. With your thumbnail slit open the pod along the line that appears. Remove the peas with their soft winged shells intact and as much soft white flesh as you can by scraping the inside of the pod with the side of a spoon. Place the peas and flesh in a strainer and wash well to remove the sticky, bitter film that coats them. (Or better still, blanch them for a few minutes, then pour off the water before boiling again in fresh water). Now they are ready to use in any recipe you would use for green peas. They can be boiled as they are, seasoned with onion, butter and salt, much the same as the leaves and young pods. They can be cooked with rice as you would any bean.

In India the peas are prepared using this recipe:

12-15 horseradish tree pods 1 medium onion, diced 4 cups grated coconut 2 bouillon cubes

2 inches ginger root 4 T. oil or bacon grease 1 clove garlic 2 eggs, hard boiled salt, pepper to taste

Blanch both peas and pods flesh, drain. Remove milk from 2 1/2 cups grated coconut by squeezing water through it two or three times. Crush ginger root and garlic, save half for later. Mix peas, flesh, coconut milk, ginger and garlic together with onion, bouillon cubes, oil, salt and pepper. Bring to a boil and cook until the peas are soft, about 20 minutes. Fry remaining coconut until brown. Fry remaining half of crushed ginger root and garlic in 2

T. oil. Dice eggs. Add coconut, ginger, garlic and eggs to first mixture, heat through. Serves six.

Moringa seed, dried

The dry seeds are apparently not used for human food, perhaps because the bitter coating has now become hardened. They are used for their oil, which is about 28% by weight. The oil can be removed by an oil press. I have heard reports that the residual cake is not safe to feed to animals, but I have not seen the results of any studies. Write to me if you have details. If an oil press is not available, seeds can be roasted or browned on a skillet, ground, then added to boiling water. The oil floats to the surface. Alicia Ray says that roasting is, however, not necessary.

Moringa Flowers

A visitor who had spent time in the Pacific area told me recently that the flowers are eaten there. Unfortunately, I do not recall details. Perhaps our readers can help. Alicia Ray says they are used in Haiti for a cold remedy.

Water is boiled, then a cluster of flowers is placed to steep in it for about 5 minutes. Add a little sugar and drink as needed. It is very effective!

Moringa Roots

The tree is uprooted and the roots grated like horseradish. Alicia Ray says to one cup grated root add 1/2 cup white vinegar and 1/4 t. salt. "Chill for one hour. This sauce can be stored for a long time in the refrigerator." The following caution appeared in EDN 35. It begins by quoting from a recent review by Dr. Julia Morton in Economic Botany.

The root, best known in India and the Far East, is extremely pungent. When the plant is only 60 cm tall, it can be pulled up, its root scraped, ground up and vinegar and salt added to make a popular condiment much like true horseradish The root bark must be completely removed since it contains two alkaloids allied to ephedrine -- benzylamine (moringine), which is not physiologically active, and the toxic moringinine which acts on the sympathetic nerve endings as well as on the cardiac and smooth muscles all over the body. Also present is the potent antibiotic and fungicide, pterygospermin. The alkaloid, spirachin (a nerve-paralyzing agent) has been found in the roots.... Even when free of bark, the condiment, in excess, may be harmful.

The key words are "in excess." I worked one summer in the laboratory of forage scientist Dr. VanSoest at Cornell University. He said we should learn a lesson from the deer. Deer can eat plants with no ill effect that are poisonous to cattle. The difference is that deer are browsers. They eat a small amount of one thing, then move on to many other things during the course of the day. In contrast, when a cow likes something it keeps eating. "The body is capable of detoxifying small amounts of a great many things."

I have thought of that many times since working with so many kinds of plants at ECHO. No doubt a steady diet of some would be harmful, as is the case with many common foods like cassava which contains cyanide or spinach with oxalates. There is a comforting degree of safety in "browsing" among a large selection of foods. Not only will your body more likely be able to detoxify the small amounts of any particular toxin, but also it is more likely to find at least a minimal amount of the various nutrients it requires. All the more reason to work to bring diversity to the diets of people with whom we work.

Moringa Recipes

How much moringa should you eat?

  • One half cup of cooked leaves will meet your daily recommendation for Vitamins A and C.
  • One half cup of pods (raw) will supply your Vitamin C quota for the day.

Serve moringa in daily meals

Here are some ways to cook moringa leaves and pods. All of the following recipes were developed in the Philippines and the ingredients are standard inclusions in meals there. Coconut milk is extracted by squeezing the meat of a freshly grated coconut. The first squeezing is called kakang gata or coconut milk. A second squeezing is used after water is added to the remaining coconut meat, and this is called gata or coconut reserve. The green pods of moringa can be used as a substitute for okra.

The measurements in the recipes are all in the English system. The following are a list of conversions you can use for making the recipes “metric”:

Dry Measure

Liquid Measure

1 c. = 151 grams

1 c. = 236 ml

1 T. = 9.45 grams

1 T. = 14.77 ml

1 tsp. = 3.15 grams

1 tsp. = 4.92 ml

pc = piece


The first list of recipes below were tested at the Recipe and Menu Testing Laboratory, and chemically analyzed in the Food Research Division of the Food and Nutrition Research Center, National Science Development Board (Manila). These recipes were taken from FNRC Publication No. 47, revised April l974, reprinted March 1978. [*Translation was assisted by Earnesto Guiang, Office of Rural and Agricultural Development, USAID/Manina, and Rosalinga Garcia-Yangas, International Science and Technology Institute, Inc., Arlington, VA.]

Ground beef with moringa


2 T. cooking fat

4 c. water

1 tsp. minced garlic

2 tsp. salt

1 T. sliced onion

dash of pepper

1/2 c. chopped tomatoes

1 c. ground beef, cooked

3 c. moringa leaves, washed and sorted

Preparation: Sauté garlic, onion, and tomatoes in large fry pan. Add ground beef. Cover and simmer 5 minutes over low heat. Add water and bring to a boil. Season with salt and pepper. Add moringa leaves. Cook 5 minutes longer. Serves 6.

Moringa leaves gulay*


1 c. coconut milk diluted with 1 c. water

1 c. dried fish (boiled, flaked, and fried in 1 T. cooking fat) 2 garlic cloves, minced

1 medium onion, sliced

1/8 tsp. salt

6 c. moringa leaves, washed and sorted 4 pieces chili peppers, crushed

Preparation: Boil coconut milk, dried fish, garlic and onion for 10 minutes. Season with salt, stirring the mixture continuously. Add moringa leaves and crushed chili peppers. Cook 5 minutes longer. Serve hot. Serves 6.

Shrimp suam*


2 T. shortening

1-1/2 tsp. salt

1 tsp. minced garlic

5 c. water

1 T. sliced onion

12 fresh shrimp, trimmed

1 T. ginger, cut into strips

2 c. moringa leaves, washed and sorted

1 T. fish sauce

Preparation: Sauté garlic, onion and ginger in shortening, in large fry pan. Add fish sauce, salt and water. Bring to a boil, and add shrimp. Cover and cook 10 minutes longer. Serve at once, Serves 6.

Mung bean stew


4 T. cooking fat

1/2 c. shrimp juice

1 tsp. minced garlic

1/2 c. pork broth

2 T. sliced onion

3 c. water

1/2 c. sliced tomatoes

4-1/4 tsp. salt

1/2 c. sliced boiled pork

dash of pepper

1/2 c. sliced shrimp

3 c. moringa leaves, washed and sorted 1

c. dried mung bean, boiled

Preparation: Sauté garlic, onion and tomatoes in large fry pan. Add pork and shrimp. Cover and cook 3 minutes. Add mung bean, shrimp juice, pork broth and water. Cover and bring to a boil. Season with salt and pepper, then add moringa leaves and cook 5 minutes longer. Serves 6.

Dinengdeng II* (Fish and vegetable stew)


1/2 c. dried pigeon pea or Congo pea boiled in 1 1 medium-size fish cut into slices and boiled

2 large tomatoes, sliced

3 c. water

10 young okra, cut into 1” lengths

3 c. water

1/4 c. fish paste

2 c. cowpea or yard-long bean cut into 2" lengths

2 c. moringa leaves

1/2 medium onion, sliced

Preparation: Add water to cooked pigeon pea or Congo pea in large saucepan. Boil, and add cowpea or yard- long bean. Cover and cook 3 minutes. Add fish paste, onion, tomatoes, fish and okra. Cover and boil 2 minutes. Do not stir vegetables. Add moringa leaves, cover, and cook 5 minutes longer. Serve hot. Serves 6.

Sautéed moringa pods


2 c. fresh moringa pods

2-1/2 c. shrimp juice from pounded heads of shrimp

2 T. shortening

2 T. shrimp paste

1 tsp. minced garlic tsp. salt

2 T. sliced onion 1 c. fresh lima or butter bean seeds, peeled

1/2 c. sliced tomatoes

1 c. green cowpea or yard-long bean pods cut into 1-1/2" lengths

1 c. boiled pork, diced

1/2 c. shrimp, shelled and sliced lengthwise

Preparation: Cut moringa pods lengthwise into 4 pieces. Slice white pulp including tender seeds. Discard outer covering. Cut pulp into 1-1/2 inch lengths. Sauté garlic, onion, and tomatoes. Add pork and shrimp. Cover, and cook 2 minutes. Add shrimp juice, and boil. Season with fish paste and salt. Add lima or butter beans, and cook 3 minutes. Add moringa pulp and cowpea or yard-long bean. Cover, and cook 10 minutes. Serves 6.

The following list of KPMS Recipes from the Twelve Regions (Translation: K=pigeon or Congo pea, P=papaya, M=moringa, S=winged bean) were compiled by Mrs. Serapia Lanuza, Home Economist Extension Specialist with the Bureau of Agricultural Extension in Quezon City, Philippines.

Jambalya camp


1 c. rice

1/2 c. winged bean, blanched

1 onion, chopped

1 carrot, sliced thinly

3 T. oil

1 green pepper, sliced thinly

1 c. ground pork

1/2 c. pigeon or Congo pea seeds

3/4 c. tomatoes, chopped

1/2 c. moringa leaves

1 T. finely chopped celery

3 T. fish sauce

1/2 c. small fresh-water clams (no shell)

3 c. water (soup of boiled clams) MSG or Accent

Preparation: Wash rice and soak in small bowl for 1 hour, then drain. Fry onion in cooking oil until tender, but not brown. Set aside. Fry pork and add tomatoes and fish sauce. Add 3 c. soup of boiled clams. When boiling, stir in rice slowly on low fire. When rice is half cooked add the other ingredients. Cover tightly and cook slowly. Serve hot with sliced papaya. Serves 6.

Corn with moringa leaves


2 c. grated young corn

1 small sponge gourd (luffa)

2 cloves garlic

1 c. moringa

1 head onion

1-1/2 Accent or MSG

3 c. water salt to taste

Preparation: Sauté garlic and onion in medium fry pan. Add water and let it boil. Then add the corn, stirring often to avoid burning. When cooked, add the gourd and moringa.

Vegetable rolls


1/2 c pigeon or Congo peas, boiled and mashed

1 c. meat from unripe coconut, chopped

1 red pepper, chopped

1 c. moringa leaves or fruit green pepper, chopped

1 c. squash, grated

3 beaten eggs

1/2 c carrots, grated

1 onion, chopped

4 T. margarine

1/2 c. winged beans (optional)

1 bulb garlic, chopped pepper and salt to taste

½ c. pork, ground (optional)

Preparation: Mix all ingredients above. Wrap in banana leaves or plastic bags, and tie both ends. Steam for 45 minutes.

Sautéed pigeon pea or congo pea, papaya, moringa and winged bean with liver


1/4 c. pigeon or Congo peas

1/2 c. liver

3 quarts water

3 T. salt

3/4 c. cooking oil

2 c. water

4 segments garlic

1-3/4 c. winged bean

1-1/4 c. tomatoes

2 c. moringa leaves

Preparation: Boil peas until cooked. Set aside. Sauté garlic, onion and tomatoes. Add liver. Cover and cook until liver is tender. Season. Add water. Add winged bean and papaya. Cover and cook 10 minutes. Add cooked peas and moringa leaves. Serve hot.

Pigeon pea or Congo pea with pork and banana blossom


1 c. peas

1 c. winged bean

1 piece banana blossom

1/2 c. moringa leaves

1 leg pork ginger

1 c. roselle

salt to taste

Preparation: Brown pork. Remove from heat, and cut into cubes about 2 inches in size. Boil peas and pork leg until tender. Add ginger and salt to taste. Add banana blossoms and winged beans. When tender, add roselle and onions.

Chicken with pigeon or Congo pea, papaya, moringa, and winged bean


1medium size chicken onion

1-1/2 c. boiled pigeon or Congo pea

1 tomato

2 pcs green medium size papaya

3 cloves garlic

1 c. winged beans

salt or Accent to taste

1 c. moringa leaves

Preparation: Saute garlic, onion and tomato. Add sliced chicken, boiled peas, and boil for 20 minutes. Then add papaya and winged beans, and boil another 10 minutes. Add Accent and salt to taste. Put in moringa leaves before removing from heat. Serve hot.

Pigeon or Congo pea, papaya, moringa, and winged bean hamburger


1 c. boiled peas, mashed

1/2 c. papaya, chopped

1/2 c. string beans, chopped

1/2 c. flour

1/2 c. moringa

2 eggs

1 big sized onion, chopped

2 segments garlic

oil to fry

salt to taste

Preparation: Sauté garlic, onions and tomatoes. Add mashed peas, papaya, winged beans, and set aside. Beat eggs and add flour. Add moringa leaves to sautéed ingredients, and mix with beaten eggs.

Pochero a la berding gulay


1 c. peeled & sliced unripe papaya

3 stems green onions

1 c. moringa leaves

1 small piece ginger (thinly sliced)

1 c. green beans or winged beans

1 T. cooking oil

3 pieces ripe tomato

5 black pepper, whole

3 pieces ripe banana

3 c. water

1 c. dried minnow

salt to taste

1 clove garlic

Preparation: Sauté the garlic and ginger in cooking oil until slightly brown. Add the water and bring to a boil. Add the banana, beans and black pepper. Cover, and continue to boil. When half-done add the sliced papaya, dried minnow, tomatoes, green onions, and salt to taste. Lastly, add the moringa leaves. Remove from heat when done, and serve while hot. Serves 8.

Masquadilla torta*


1/2 c. moringa leaves

3 eggs, beaten

1 c. winged bean pods, finely chopped

3 pieces tomato, sliced

1/2 c. shredded papaya

3/4 c. shredded squash

1/2 c. onion, sliced

1/2 c. powdered mung bean

5 segments garlic

1/4 c. powdered dried minnow

salt & pepper to taste

Preparation: Mix moringa pods, leaves, shredded papaya, squash, powdered dried minnow, powdered mung bean, tomatoes, beaten eggs, onion, garlic, salt and pepper to taste. Place one piece of 5 x 5 banana leaf on a plate, and pour the mixture on it. Then deep fry in oil until golden brown. Garnish with sliced tomatoes, onions and calamansi*. Serves 8.

Pigeon or Congo pea, papaya, moringa, winged bean chicken guinat-an*


3 pieces tomato

8 pieces winged bean

1 small papaya

1 c. coconut milk

1 c. boiled pigeon or Congo pea

1 c. palm heart

1/2 c. sliced chicken

3 pieces garlic

1 c. moringa leaves

1 small ginger

3 c. water

1 onion

salt to taste

Preparation: Sauté garlic, onions, tomato and ginger in hot oil. Add the sliced chicken and boil with salt. Then add the water, and boil until the chicken is done. Add the papaya, palm heart, winged beans and pigeon or Congo pea. Lastly, add the moringa and coconut milk. Season to taste.

Vegetable delight


1 c. pure coconut milk

1 small piece ginger

1/3 c. pure coconut milk reserve

3 pieces bell pepper, green & red, quartered

5 pieces fish, preferably tilapia

1/2 c. moringa leaves

1 onion bulb, sliced

1-2 T. cooking oil

1 head garlic, crushed

1 t. crushed black pepper

3 tomatoes, quartered

1/2 c. pigeon or Congo peas

8-10 winged beans or string

1 c. cubed yellow sweet potato beans, quartered

Preparation: Sauté garlic in oil until brown. Add onion. Transfer to unglazed cooking pot, then add 1 c. pure coconut milk, winged beans, pigeon or Congo peas, yellow sweet potato, fish, and ginger. Let it boil until half- done. Add bell peppers and tomatoes. Season with salt and crushed pepper. Add the rest of the coconut milk and moringa. Boil for 5 minutes, and serve.



1 c. sliced papaya

4 c. water

1 c. moringa leaves

1 tsp. salt

1 c. winged beans ginger and seasoning to taste c. pigeon or Congo peas

Preparation: Wash peas and papaya (which have been sliced into elongated pieces). Remove young moringa leaves from stems, and place in a cup. Slice winged beans to desired size, and wash. Pare ginger, and pound. Place all ingredients in a casserole accordingly. Cook for 15 minutes or until all vegetables are tender. Serve hot. Serves 4.

Sauted young pigeon or Congo peas


2 c. dried minnow T. oil

2 c. moringa leaves

2 tsp. soy sauce

1 c. young pigeon or Congo peas

1 medium size onion 1/2 c. sliced tomato

3 cloves garlic

1 c. sliced squash salt to taste

Preparation: Sauté garlic, onions and tomatoes. Add fish, squash and peas, and cover. Cook for 10 minutes. Add moringa leaves, and continue cooking for 3 minutes. Remove from heat and serve hot.



1 c. pigeon or Congo peas, boiled

1 T. fish paste or

1 c. green papaya, sliced into salted fish

small pieces

1 piece ginger

1 c. moringa leaves

2 medium tomatoes, sliced

1 c. winged beans, sliced into strips

1 c. roasted walking catfish or mullet

Preparation: Boil 2 c. water in a casserole. Add the fish paste, ginger, and roasted fish for 15 minutes. Then add the previously boiled peas, green papaya, and winged beans. Cook until tender. Add the moringa leaves last, and cook 2-3 minutes more. Add a pinch of Accent or salt to taste. Serve hot. Serves 4.

Pinamilit na "Haluwan" (Dalag)* (Tilapia in coconut milk)


1 c. tilapia (roasted fish)

1 onion

4 c. coconut milk

1 small ginger

2 c. water

1 piece papaya

1 c. moringa leaves

black pepper to taste

Preparation: Boil the coconut milk with water. After boiling, mix the fish with the spices for 5 minutes. Add the papaya and let it boil for 5 minutes, then add the moringa leaves. Cook for 5 minutes more. Remove from heat. Serve hot. Serves 4.

3-in-1 Recipe


1/2 c. coconut milk, dilute

1/2 c. shrimp paste

1 c. dried shrimp

2 pieces green pepper, cut into strips

1/2 papaya, unripe, cut into strips

3 c. moringa leaves

1 segment garlic & onion, minced

Preparation: Boil coconut milk, shrimp, garlic, and onions for 10 minutes. Season with shrimp paste, and continue stirring. Add cooked peas, papaya, green pepper, and moringa leaves. Cook 5 minutes longer. Serve hot. Serves 6.

Kmps lumpia (fried moringa with shrimp)


1 c. boiled pigeon pea

1 T. onion, sliced

1 c. winged bean, boiled & sliced

2 cloves garlic

1 c. grated green papaya

1 T. salt

1 c. moringa leaves

25 rice papers

½ c. mini shrimp

lard for frying

½ c. grated squash

Preparation: Boil pigeon pea, winged bean and set aside. Grate papaya, add salt and let is stand for 20 minutes; rinse thoroughly. Sauté garlic and onion. Add all the ingredients except moringa leaves. Add salt to taste.

Remove from heat and cool. Add the moringa leaves to the mixture and wrap with rice paper. Deep fry in oil.

Papaya ring


1 medium green papaya

¼ c. moringa leaves

¼ c. winged beans, chopped

½ c. pigeon pea

¼ papaya, chopped

¼ c. carrots, chopped

2 T. red pepper, chopped

3 cloves garlic, chopped

2 T. flour

2 T. oil

2 tomatoes, finely chopped

1 T. soy sauce

salt & pepper to taste

tomato catsup

Preparation: Soak pigeon peas overnight. Boil until cooked. Mash, set aside. Sauté garlic, onions and tomatoes in large frying pan. Add mashed peas, winged beans, papaya, pepper, carrots and soy sauce. Cook one minute. Remove from heat and add moringa, beaten and flour. Mix well. Stuff the mixture into the papaya. Steam for 7 minutes. Cut horizontally into rings and arrange on platter. Serve with catsup. Serves 6.

Lawot-Lawot (Vegetable stew)


½ c. pigeon pea

1 c. moringa leaves

1 c. calabasa (yellow squash)

1 c. bitter melon

1 c. spinach (purple)

3 young taro leaves

2 red sweet peppers

½ c. winged beans

2 stalks green onions

1 t. sliced ginger

1 t. salt

1 stalk lemon grass

1 c. thick coconut milk

2 c. thin coconut milk

Preparation: Select fresh tender vegetables that are free from blemishes. Wash whole and slice to desired sizes; set aside. Bring to boil 1 c. thin coconut milk. Add pre-cooked pigeon pea, squash and taro leaves. Boil 5 minutes. Add remaining 1 c. thin coconut milk, winged beans bitter melon and spices. Boil 2 minutes. Add thick coconut milk and leafy vegetables. Allow to boil. Remove from heat. Serve hot.

Sautéed vegetables with cassava


2 c. boiled pigeon pea

1 c. mung bean, yard-long bean or cowpea

½ c. moringa pods

1 c. papaya

1 c. cubed cassava

3 c. water

oil onions

garlic salt


Preparation: Sauté garlic, onion and tomatoes. Add beans, peas, papaya and cassava. Add water and salt to taste. Boil until tender.

Moringa chop suey


2/3 c. mashed boiled peas

¼ c. chopped onion

¼ c. blanched moringa leaves

1 ½ c. water

1/3 c. chopped shelled shrimp

2 T. flour

1 egg, beaten /3 c. oil

2 cloves garlic

1 small half-ripe papaya, thinly sliced

½ c. shrimp juice

3 pieces winged bean, sliced crosswise

2 pieces red & green pepper, sliced

pinch of white pepper

Preparation: Combine mashed peas, moringa leaves, shrimp, one-half of the beaten egg, 1 T. flour, half onion; season with white pepper and salt to taste. Mix well and form into small balls and fry. Sauté garlic and remaining onion. Add salt and shrimp juice. Let it simmer for 2 minutes. Add fried pea balls, papaya, winged bean and water. Bring to boil for 3 minutes. Beat 1 T. flour to the remaining beaten egg and pour in; add peppers, then salt to taste. Sprinkle with white pepper and serve hot. Serves 6.

Moringa leaf sauce

(Recipe from Church World Service, Senegal)


50 grams moringa leaf powder (made from dried leaves)

500 g. smoked or dried fish and/or meat

200 g. peanut butter (groundnut butter)

1 litre water

5 T. palm oil

1 medium onion

salt and pepper to taste

Preparation: Stir the peanut butter into one litre water, bring to a boil. Add the fish and/or meat; cook 20 minutes. Add moringa powder, oil and onion. Cover and simmer 20 minutes. Add spices to taste. Serve over rice, couscous or foufou (cassava/manioc or corn mash).