icipe's mission is to help alleviate poverty, ensure food security and improve the overall health status of peoples of the tropics, by developing and extending management tools and strategies for harmful and useful arthropods, while preserving the natural resource base through research and capacity building.
The Centre's vision is to pioneer global science in entomology, to improve the well being and resilience of people and the environment to the challenges of a changing world, through innovative and applied research, alongside deep exploratory study, impact assessment, evaluation and sustainable capacity building.
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Ticks and tick-borne diseases cause great economic loss to livestock in the world and have adverse effects on them in several ways and even leads to their death. Ticks parasitise a wide range of vertebrate hosts and transmit a variety of pathogenic agents than any other group of arthropods. The most common species in the East African region include Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, Amblyomma variegatum and Rhipicephalus decoloratus, while in Somaliland, Rhipicephalus evertsi followed by Hyalomma truncatum, Amblyomma variegatum, Rhipicephalus appendiculatus and Rhipicephalus pulchellus.
Nematodes are difficult to diagnose due to their nonspecific, cryptic disease symptoms, lack of apparent damage, limited diagnostic capabilities, and inadequate understanding of nematodes and expertise to manage the pests. Nematodes are often misdiagnosed or attributed to other causes.
Many of the important agricultural and horticultural crops cultivated worldwide belong to the genus Brassica.
The main brassicas grown in East Africa are cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata); kale, also called choumolea (B. oleracea L. var. acephala); Chinese cabbage (B. campestris L. var. sinensis); cauliflower (B. oleracea L. var. botrytis); broccoli (B. oleracea L. var. botrytis); and Brussel sprouts (B. oleracea L. var. gemmifera).
These vegetables are grown mainly for local markets and domestic use. They are valuable sources of vitamins and minerals, as well as a source of cash for small-scale farmers in rural and peri-urban areas. However, production is often constrained by damage caused by a range of insects, diseases, nematodes and weeds. The range of pests attacking brassicas is similar, but the relative importance of individual pest species varies between the different crops and among countries. The major insect pests of brassica include diamondback moth (DBM), cabbage aphids, cabbage webworm, cabbage cluster caterpillar and Bagrada bugs. Black rot, turnip mosaic virus and bacterial soft rot constitute the main diseases.
This field guide provides agricultural scientists, extension workers and quarantine specialists with information on the life cycle, damage symptoms, distribution and host plants of major fruit fly species of fruits and vegetables in Africa. The purpose, tools and methodology for fruit fly monitoring, suppression and host fruit processing and handling are also comprehensively covered. Additionally, brief sections on safety precautions A-1 during monitoring and suppression, and packaging, handling and shipment of specimens to facilitate identification are provided. The field guide also provides a simple, user-friendly taxonomic key to all the common fruit fly species to allow for rapid identification of the major species found on fruits in Africa. This manual is to be considered as a 'working document' to be regularly updated as fruit fly taxonomy and management techniques continue to improve and global experience in control programmes continues to expand.