Buckwheat Fagopyrum esculentum (syn. F. sagittatum Gilib)

Buckwheat originated in East Asia. Buckwheat is both a food grain and a feed grain. It is called a pseudocereal, as buckwheat is not a grass species like the true cereals such as maize, rice, or wheat.

Finger Millet Eleusine coracana

Finger Millet is probably of Indian or African origin. It is widely cultivated in tropical Asia and East Africa and on the rainy slopes of the Himalayas up to 2300 m elevation.

Maize Zea mays L. subsp. mays

Cultivation of corn was known in portions of Mexico and Central America in Pre-Columbian times. Corn use has spread to many other temperate, subtropical, and tropical regions of the globe where it is known as Maize. Among the cereal grains, Maize production worldwide is surpassed only by rice and...

Pearl Millet Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br. (syn. P. americanum, P. typhoides)

Pearl millet reportedly was domesticated over 4,000 years ago in the West African Sahel, spreading later to East Africa and India. Millets, along with sorghums, have been dominant staple crops in Africa for over a thousand years. More drought-resistant than other cereal crops, pearl millet has...

Proso Millet Panicum maliaceum

Proso Millet was one of the earliest cultivated grains in the world in Central and Eastern Asia. The production of Proso Millet is declining and the crop is being replaced in the human diet by other cereals, especially rice, wheat and maize. However, it will continue to be an important staple in...

Turnip Brassica rapa var. rapifera

Turnips have been cultivated in Europe for over 4000 years and are probably native to central and southern Europe. They are now commonly grown and widely adapted as a root crop even in the tropics. The tubers have white or yellow flesh, the tops (greens) are medium green and hairy.