Nutritional composition and antinutritional properties of maize ogi cofermented with pigeon pea
Abstract, Food Science & Nutrition, 2018 March
Ogi is consumed by adults and children as breakfast meals, and it also serves as a weaning diet (Ashaye, Fasoyiro, & Kehinde, 2000; Amusa et al., 2005). After 5–6 months, breast‐feeding is no longer sufficient to satisfy the nutritional requirements of the growing infant. Beginning from this period, the child needs solid foods to meet increasing nutritional needs (Onofiok & Nnanyelugo, 1998). This period is the weaning period and in Nigeria, ogi (alternatively called pap or akamu) is introduced gradually to the child's diet to supplement nutrition. Fermented maize is very widely utilized as food in African countries and in fact cereals account for as much as 77% of total caloric consumption (Osungbaro, 2009). Maize is rich in carbohydrates and minerals, including potassium and magnesium. It contains trace amounts of lysine and tryptophan, contributing to the low content of protein, and trace amounts of B‐vitamins (USDA, 2012).
Protein deficiency in infants and young children has been shown to have harmful effects on the brain and may have longer term effects on brain function (Omemu & Faniran, 2011). It has been shown to have adverse effects on the immune system, resulting in a higher risk of infections (Bistrian, Blackburn, Scrimshaw, & Flatt, 1975; Omemu, 2011). It also affects gut mucosal function and permeability which, in turn, affects absorption and makes possible bacterial invasion from the gut, which can result in septicemia. Protein deficiency has also been shown to adversely affect kidney function, affecting adversely glomerular and tubular function (Benabe & Martinez‐Maldonado, 1998).
Fortification of food refers to the addition of essential micronutrients to food particularly added to correct specific nutritional deficiencies such as addition of vitamins and iron to breakfast foods (cereals and beverages) and fortification of sugar with vitamin A and fortification of table salt with iodine (Mbaeyi & Onweluzo, 2010). Several studies have shown the enrichment of ogi with different food substances such as bambara groundnut (Mbata, Ikenebomeh, & Alaneme, 2009), pawpaw (Ajanaku et al., 2010), groundnut seed (Ajanaku, Ajanaku, Edobor, & Nwinyi, 2012), soybean (Adeleke & Oyewole, 2010), crayfish (Ajanaku et al., 2013), okra seed meal (Aminigo & Akingbala, 2004), kersting's groundnut (Kerstingiella geocarpah) flour (Aremu, Olaofe, Audu, & Ijalana, 2011), scarlet runner bean (Aremu, Osinfade, Basu, & Ablaku, 2011), cowpea (Ashaye et al., 2000; Oyarekua, 2009), among others. One cheap method of enhancing the nutritive value of ogi is by adding legumes to it.
Keywords: antinutritional, maize, nutritional, ogi, pigeon pea